Ferrofluid Products

The operating life of the product depends on the volatility of the ferrofluid. Products that require long life must use ferrofluids with low evaporation rate or vapor pressure. Also, seals operating at high vacuum must incorporate low vapor pressure fluids. On the other hand, ferrofluids for domain observation must evaporate quickly so that the process time can be minimized. The lower the volatility, the higher the viscosity of the ferrofluid.

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Thermal conductivity of a ferrofluid depends linearly on the solid loading. Fluorocarbon based ferrofluids have the lowest thermal conductivity of all commercial ferrofluid , therefore they are the least desirable materials for heat transfer applications.

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In devices, ferrofluids come in contact with a wide variety of materials. It is necessary to ensure that ferrofluids are chemically compatible with these materials. The fluids may be exposed to hostile gases, such as in the semiconductor and laser industries; to liquid sprays in machine tool and aircraft industries; to lubricant vapors in the computer industry; and to various adhesives in the speaker industry. Furthermore, ferrofluids may be in contact with various types of plastics and plating materials. The surface morphology can also affect the behavior of the fluid. The selection of ferrofluid is carefully engineered to meet application requirements.

Additionally, ferrofluids may be expected to perform at temperature of 150°C continuously or 200°C intermittently, in winter conditions (-20°C) and space environments (-55°C). They may also be required to withstand nuclear radiation without breakdown.

The thermal stability of a ferrofluid is related to particle density. The particles appear to behave like a catalyst and produce free radicals, which lead to cross linking of molecular chains and eventual congealing of the fluid. Catalytic activity is higher at elevated temperatures and, therefore, ferrofluids congeal more rapidly at these temperatures.

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Oxidation is another mechanism that contributes to congealing of ferrofluids, and again the higher the temperature, the faster the rate of reaction. The ferrofluids in sealed environments stay in a liquid state significantly longer than those in open air.

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High magnetization ferrofluids are of interest as they produce volumetric efficiencies of magnetic circuit designs leading to lightweight and lower cost products. They can also be used to reduce reluctance of magnetic circuits and fringing field thus increasing useful flux density in the air gap. The domain magnetization of magmagnets for sale
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netite ultimately limits the maximum magnetization value that can be realized in a ferrofluid.

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